|Portable Document Format|
|Initial release||June 15, 1993|
|Latest release||2.0 / July 28, 2017|
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed by Adobe Systems in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems. Based on the PostScript language, each PDF file encapsulates a complete description of a fixed-layout flat document, including the text, fonts, vector graphics, raster images and other information needed to display it. PDF was standardized as ISO 32000 in 2008, and no longer requires any royalties for its implementation.
Today, PDF files may contain a variety of content besides flat text and graphics including logical structuring elements, interactive elements such as annotations and form-fields, layers, rich media (including video content) and three dimensional objects using U3D or PRC, and various other data formats. The PDF specification also provides for encryption and digital signatures, file attachments and metadata to enable workflows requiring these features.
- Adobe Systems Incorporated, PDF Reference, Sixth edition, version 1.23 (53 MB), Nov 2006, p. 33.
- The Camelot Project (PDF) by John Warnock, Adobe Systems. Planet PDF. 1995-05-05.
- PDF 1.7 (ISO 32000-1:2008) Document management — Portable document format — Part 1 (PDF), International Organization for Standardization. 2008-07-01.
- Adobe PDF at Adobe Document Cloud
- Create PDFs with Acrobat (2019-09-19)
- PDF reference and Adobe extensions to the PDF specification at Adobe DevNet
- PostScript vs. PDF: Why do we offer two printing technologies? How do they differ? by David Evans at Adobe Systems (archived 2008-05-20)
- Who Created the PDF? at Adobe Blog (2015-06-18)
- The history of PDF by Laurens Leurs at Prepressure (2017-03-05)
- Refrying PDFs - the good, the bad and the ugly (PDF) by Leonard Rosenthal, Adobe Inc. at Ghent PDF Workgroup (2008-10-25)
- Portable Document Format at the Free On-Line Dictionary Of Computing
- PDF 2.0 (ISO 32000-2:2017) at International Organization for Standardization
- PDF at the Apple Wiki
- PDF at the Macromedia Wiki
- PDF and History of the Portable Document Format (PDF) at Wikipedia
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