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File:Adobe Animate CC icon 2020.png

Icon of Adobe Animate CC

Adobe Animate,曾经的名字是Adobe Flash,是 Adobe Systems 的动画和多媒体创作应用程序。

Adobe Flash 以前被称为 Shockwave FlashMacromedia Flash。 Flash 是自 2005 年 12 月 Adobe 收购 Macromedia 以来由 Adobe Systems 开发和分发的一组多媒体技术。 自 1996 年推出以来,Flash 技术成为一种流行的向网页添加动画和交互性的方法。 Flash 通常用于创建动画、广告、各种网页组件、将视频集成到网页中,以及最近用于开发富 Internet 应用程序。

Flash 可以处理矢量和光栅图形,并支持音频和视频的双向流。 它包含一种称为 ActionScript 的脚本语言。 它在最常见的网络浏览器和一些手机和其他电子设备(使用 Flash Lite)中可用。 一些软件产品、系统和设备能够创建或显示 Flash,包括 Adobe Flash PlayerAdobe Flash Professional 多媒体创作程序,用于为 Adobe Engagement Platform 创建内容,例如 Web 应用程序、游戏和电影,以及用于移动电话和其他嵌入式设备的内容。

Files in the SWF format, traditionally called "Flash movies" or "Flash games", usually have a .swf file extension and may be an object of a web page, strictly "played" in a standalone Flash Player, or incorporated into a Projector, a self-executing Flash movie (with the .exe extension in Microsoft Windows). Flash Video (FLV) files have a .flv file extension and are utilized from within .swf files.

历史[ | ]

The program Flash is the brainchild of Jonathan Gay, who developed the idea in college and later while working for Silicon Beach Software and its successors.[2][3]

File:FutureSplash Animator box.png

FutureSplash Animator

File:Macromedia Flash 1 cover.png

Macromedia Flash 1.0

In January 1993, Gay, Charlie Jackson, and Michelle Welsh started a small software company called FutureWave Software and created their first product, SmartSketch. A drawing application, SmartSketch was designed to make creating computer graphics as simple as drawing on paper. At first, it didn't gain enough of a foothold in its market. As the Internet began to thrive, however, FutureWave began to realize the potential for a vector-based web animation tool that might easily challenge Macromedia's Shockwave technology. In 1995, FutureWave modified SmartSketch by adding frame-by-frame animation features and re-released it as FutureSplash Animator on Macintosh and PC. By that time, the company had added a second programmer Robert Tatsumi, artist Adam Grofcsik, and PR specialist Ralph Mittman. The product was offered to Adobe and used by Microsoft in its early work with the Internet (MSN). In December 1996, Macromedia acquired the vector-based animation software and later released it as Macromedia Flash 1.0.

Player[ | ]

  • Macromedia Flash 2 (1997) Features: Support of stereo sound, enhanced bitmap integration, buttons, the Library, and the capability to tween color changes.
  • Macromedia Flash 3 (1998) Features: Brought improvements to animation, playback, and publishing, as well as the introduction of simple script commands for interactivity. As of 2008, Macromedia had shipped 100,000 Flash products.
  • Macromedia Flash 4 (1999) Features: Achieved 100 million installations of the Flash Player, thanks in part to its inclusion with Microsoft Internet Explorer 5. Flash 4 saw the introduction of streaming MP3s and the Motion Tween. Initially, the Flash Player plug-in was not bundled with popular web browsers and users had to visit Macromedia website to download it; As of 2000, however, the Flash Player was already being distributed with all AOL, Netscape and Internet Explorer browsers. Two years later it shipped with all releases of Windows XP. The install-base of the Flash Player reached 92 percent of all Internet users.
  • Macromedia Flash 5 (2001) Features: Flash 5 was a major leap forward in capability, with the evolution of Flash's scripting capabilities as released as ActionScript. Flash 5 also saw the ability to customize the authoring environment's interface.
  • Macromedia Generator was the first initiative from Macromedia to separate design from content in Flash files. Generator 2.0 was released in April 2001 and featured real-time server-side generation of Flash content in its Enterprise Edition. Generator was discontinued in 2002 in favor of new technologies such as Flash Remoting, which allows for seamless transmission of data between the server and the client, and ColdFusion Server.

In October 2000, usability guru Jakob Nielsen wrote a polemic article regarding usability of Flash content entitled "Flash 99% Bad". (Macromedia later hired Nielsen to help them improve Flash usability.) In September 2001, a survey made for Macromedia by Media Metrix showed that out of the 10 biggest websites in the United States, seven were making use of Flash content.Template:Fact

  • Macromedia Flash MX was released on March 15, 2002, with the new Macromedia Flash Player 6 with support for video, application components, shared libraries, and accessibility.
  • Macromedia Flash Communication Server MX, also released in 2002, allowed video to be streamed to Flash Player 6 (otherwise the video could be embedded into the Flash movie).
  • Macromedia Flash MX 2004 was released in September 2003, with features such as faster runtime performance up to eight times with the enhanced compiler and the new Macromedia Flash Player 7, ability to create charts, graphs and additional text effects with the new support for extensions (sold separately), high fidelity import of PDF and Adobe Illustrator 10 files, mobile and device development and a forms-based development environment. ActionScript 2.0 was also introduced, giving developers a formal Object-Oriented approach to ActionScript. V2 Components replaced Flash MX's components, being rewritten from the ground up to take advantage of ActionScript 2.0 and Object-Oriented principles. Flash MX 2004 was the first release of Flash to be segmented into "Basic" and "Professional" versions. The Basic version was targeted at traditional Flash animators while the Professional version brought more advanced capabilities that developers would use, for example the data components.

In 2004, the "Flash Platform" was introduced. This expanded Flash to more than the Flash authoring tool. Flex 1.0 and Breeze 1.0 were released, both of which utilized the Flash Player as a delivery method but relied on tools other than the Flash authoring program to create Flash applications and presentations. Flash Lite 1.1 was also released, enabling mobile phones to play Flash content.

  • Macromedia Flash 8 (2005) is touted by Macromedia as the most significant upgrade to Flash since Flash 5. New features included filter effects and blending modes, bitmap caching, a new video codec called On2 VP6, an enhanced type rendering engine called FlashType, an emulator for mobile devices, and several enhancements to the ActionScript 2.0 spec, such as the BitmapData class, several geometric classes, and the ConvolutionFilter and DisplacmentMapFilter classes.
  • Macromedia Flash Lite 2 was also released in 2005, which brought its capabilities in line with Flash Player 7.

On December 3, 2005, Adobe Systems acquired Macromedia and its product portfolio (including Flash).

  • Adobe Flash Player 9 was released for Windows and Mac OS in 2006, which marked the first time a Flash Player major release occurred without a simultaneous Flash authoring program major release. Flex 2.0 was released in conjunction with Flash Player 9, and the player was continued when Flash Authoring 9 was released in 2007. For the first time in the history of Flash, the Flash Player had an opportunity to become widely installed before the release of the equivalent Flash program. Adobe Flash Player 9 was released for Linux in January 2007.
  • Adobe Flash 9 Public Alpha was released in 2006, and was a preview of ActionScript 3.0.
  • Adobe Flash CS3 in 2007, originated from Flash 9 Public Alpha with several updates for integrating into other Adobe products, is released as a bundled software of the Adobe Creative Suite 3. This currently-newest version also brings ActionScript 3.0 and a new xml engine to the Flash authoring tool. It also has an improved and optimized GUI like the rest of the CS3 suite.

创作工具[ | ]

  • FutureSplash Animator (April 10, 1996) – initial version of Flash with basic editing tools and a timeline
  • Macromedia Flash 1 (November 1996) – a Macromedia re-branded version of the FutureSplash Animator
  • Macromedia Flash 2 (June 1997) – Released with Flash Player 2, new features included: the object library
  • Macromedia Flash 3 (May 31, 1998) – Released with Flash Player 3, new features included: the movieclip element, JavaScript plug-in integration, transparency and an external stand alone player
  • Macromedia Flash 4 (June 15, 1999) – Released with Flash Player 4, new features included: internal variables, an input field, advanced ActionScript, and streaming MP3
  • Macromedia Flash 5 (August 24, 2000) – Released with Flash Player 5, new features included: ActionScript 1.0 (based on ECMAScript, making it very similar to JavaScript in syntax), XML support, Smartclips (the precursor to components in Flash), HTML text formatting added for dynamic text
  • Macromedia Flash MX (ver 6) (March 15, 2002) – Released with Flash Player 6, new features included: a video codec (Sorenson Spark), Unicode, v1 UI Components, compression, ActionScript vector drawing API
  • Macromedia Flash MX 2004 (ver 7) (September 9, 2003) – Released with Flash Player 7, new features included: Actionscript 2.0 (which enabled an object-oriented programming model for Flash), behaviors, extensibility layer (JSAPI), alias text support, timeline effects
  • Macromedia Flash MX Professional 2004 (ver 7) (September 9, 2003) – Released with Flash Player 7, new features included all Flash MX 2004 features plus: Screens (forms for non-linear state-based development and slides for organizing content in a linear slide format like PowerPoint), web services integration, video import wizard, Media Playback components (which encapsulate a complete MP3 and/or FLV player in a component that may be placed in an SWF), Data components (DataSet, XMLConnector, WebServicesConnector, XUpdateResolver, etc) and data binding APIs, the Project Panel, v2 UI components, and Transition class libraries.
  • Macromedia Flash Basic 8 (released on September 13, 2005) – A less feature-rich version of the Flash authoring tool targeted at new users who only want to do basic drawing, animation and interactivity. Released with Flash Player 8, this version of the product has limited support for video and advanced graphical and animation effects.
  • Macromedia Flash Professional 8 (released on September 13, 2005) – Released with the Flash Player 8, Flash Professional 8 added features focused on expressiveness, quality, video, and mobile authoring. New features included Filters and blend modes, easing control for animation, enhanced stroke properties (caps and joins), object-based drawing mode, run-time bitmap caching, FlashType advanced anti-aliasing for text, On2 VP6 advanced video codec, support for alpha transparency in video, a stand-alone encoder and advanced video importer, cue point support in FLV files, an advanced video playback component, and an interactive mobile device emulator.
  • Adobe Flash CS3 Professional (as version 9, released on April 16, 2007) – Flash CS3 is the first version of Flash released under the Adobe name. CS3 features full support for ActionScript 3.0, allows tweens to be converted into ActionScript, adds better integration with other Adobe products such as Adobe Photoshop, and also provides better Vector drawing behavior, becoming more similar to Adobe Illustrator and Adobe Fireworks.

Adobe 的开发[ | ]

File:Adobe Flash CS4 icon+shadow.png

Flash CS4 icon

Adobe Labs (previously Macromedia Labs) is a source for early looks at emerging products and technologies from Adobe-Macromedia, including downloads of the latest software and plugins. Flash 9, Flex 2, and ActionScript 3.0 are discussed on the website.

An important new development in Flash (as of 2007) was its increasing use in providing the presentation layer in handheld devices. Adobe is courting cell phone and PDA vendors, and partnering to deploy Flash Lite as the user interface.

As of November 2007 Adobe Labs was developing the Adobe AIR Project[6] which is a cross-OS runtime that allows developers to reuse their existing web development skills (Flash, Flex, HTML, Ajax) to build and deploy desktop Rich Internet Applications (RIAs).

The next version of Flash had two additional components designed for large scale implementation. Adobe is adding in the option to require an ad to be played in full before the main video piece is played. This would be most useful for large scale video sites. Also, Adobe has announced plans to add DRM into the new version of Flash. This way Adobe can give companies the option to link an advertisement with content and make sure that both are played and that they are not changed.[7]

编程语言[ | ]

主条目: ActionScript

Initially focused on animation, early versions of Flash content offered few interactivity features and thus had very limited scripting capability.

More recent versions include ActionScript, an implementation of the ECMAScript standard which therefore has the same syntax as JavaScript, but in a different programming framework with a different associated set of class libraries. ActionScript is used to create almost all of the interactivity (buttons, text entry fields, pick lists) seen in many Flash applications.

New versions of the Flash Player and authoring tool have striven to improve on scripting capabilities. Flash MX 2004 introduced ActionScript 2.0, a scripting programming language more suited to the development of Flash applications. It is often possible to save a lot of time by scripting something rather than animating it, which usually also enables a higher level of editability.

Of late, the Flash libraries are being used with the XML capabilities of the browser to render rich content in the browser. This technology, which is currently in its nascent stage, is known as Asynchronous Flash and XML, much like AJAX.

This technology can be used in players like those on MySpace and YouTube, to provide protection for the content that the Flash calls, like MP3s and videos. The content called is streamed - or passes - through the Flash files, making downloading for storage a difficult task for most people. Programs such as Real Player Downloader and browser extensions like Firebug can trace the XML files.

内容保护[ | ]

Often, Flash authors will decide that while they desire the advantages that Flash affords them in the areas of animation and interactivity, they do not wish to expose their images and/or code to the world. However, once an .swf file is saved locally, it may then quite easily be decompiled into its source code and assets. Some decompilers are capable of nearly full reconstruction of the original source file, down to the actual code that was used during creation.[citation needed]

In opposition to the decompilers, SWF obfuscators have been introduced to provide a modicum of security, some produced by decompiler authors themselves. The higher-quality obfuscators use traps for the decompilers, making some fail, but none have definitively been shown to protect all content.

竞赛[ | ]

格式和插件[ | ]

Compared to other plug-ins such as Java, Acrobat Reader, QuickTime or Windows Media Player, the Flash Player has a small install size, quick download time, and fast initialization time. However, care must be taken to detect and embed the Flash Player in (X)HTML in a W3C compliant way. A simple and widely used workaround is provided below:

<object data="movie.swf" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" width="500" height="500">
    <param name="movie" value="movie.swf" />

More Information on how to detect and embed Flash Objects in a W3C compliant way is provided in the xSWF description.

The use of vector graphics combined with program code allows Flash files to be smaller, or streams to use less bandwidth, than the corresponding bitmaps or video clips. For content in a single format (such as just text, video or audio) other alternatives may provide better performance and consume less CPU power than the corresponding Flash movie, for example when using transparency or making large screen updates such as photographic or text fades.

In addition to a vector-rendering engine, the Flash Player includes a virtual machine called the ActionScript Virtual Machine (AVM) for scripting interactivity at run-time, support for video, MP3-based audio, and bitmap graphics. As of Flash Player 8, it offers two video codecs: On2 Technologies VP6 and Sorenson Spark, and run-time support for JPEG, Progressive JPEG, PNG, and GIF. In the next version, Flash is slated to use a just-in-time compiler for the ActionScript engine.

市场份额[ | ]

Flash as a format has become very widespread on the desktop market. Adobe claims that 98 percent of US Web users and 99.3 percent of all Internet desktop users have the Flash Player installed,[8] [9] with 45%–56%[10] (depending on region) having the latest version. Numbers vary depending on the detection scheme and research demographics.

Flash players exist for a wide variety of different systems and devices. Flash content can run consistently on Microsoft Windows, Mac OS, and Linux (Macromedia has created or licensed players for the following operating systems: Windows, Mac OS 9/X, Solaris, HP-UX, Pocket PC, OS/2, QNX, Symbian, Palm OS, BeOS, and IRIX). See also Macromedia Flash Lite for Flash compatibility on other devices.

开放标准替代品[ | ]

A full end-to-end implementation of the W3C SVG and SMIL specifications would offer close competition for most of the features of Flash in an open, standard way. Adobe used to develop and distribute the 'Adobe SVG Viewer' client plug-in for MS Internet Explorer, but has recently announced its discontinuation.[11] It has been noted by industry commentators that this is probably no coincidence at a time when Adobe has moved from competing with Macromedia's Flash, to owning the technology itself.[12] Meanwhile, Opera has supported SVG since version 8,[13] and Firefox's built-in support for SVG continues to grow.[14]

第三方实施[ | ]

规格[ | ]

In October 1998, Macromedia disclosed the Flash Version 3 Specification to the world on its website. It did this in response to many new and often semi-open formats competing with SWF, such as Xara's Flare and Sharp's Extended Vector Animation formats. Several developers quickly created a C library for producing SWF. In February 1999, the company introduced MorphInk 99, the first third party program to create SWF files. Macromedia also hired Middlesoft to create a freely available developers' kit for the SWF file format versions 3 to 5.

Macromedia made the Flash Files specifications for versions 6 and later available only under a non-disclosure agreement, but it is widely available from various sites.

In April 2006, the Flash SWF file format specification was released with details on the then newest version format (Flash 8). Although still lacking specific information on the incorporated video compression formats (On2, Sorenson Spark, etc.), this new documentation covered all the new features offered in Flash v8 including new ActionScript commands, expressive filter controls, and so on. The file format specification document is offered only to developers who agree to a license agreement that permits them to use the specifications only to develop programs that can export to the Flash file format. The license forbids the use of the specifications to create programs that can be used for playback of Flash files. The Flash 9 specification was made available under similar restrictions.[15]

回放[ | ]

Since Flash files do not depend on an open standard such as SVG, this reduces the incentive for non-commercial software to support the format,[citation needed] although there are several third party tools which use and generate the SWF file format. IrfanView is capable of playing SWF files. There is a large and vibrant open source community. Flash Player cannot ship as part of a pure open source, or completely free operating system, as its distribution is bound to the Macromedia Licensing Program and subject to approval.

There is, as of late 2007, no complete free software replacement which offers all the functionality of the latest version of Adobe Flash Player. Gnash, based on GameSWF, is a Flash player replacement that is under development and has the support of the Free Software Foundation - see High Priority Free Software Projects. Gnash supports Flash 7 and below, but not files that require version 8 or 9 features.[16] Swfdec is another open-source flash player available for Linux and FreeBSD and SWFOpener is a quite good program if functionality is needed.

创作[ | ]

Open Source projects like Ajax Animator, and UIRA aim to create a flash development environment, complete with a graphical user environment. Alternatively, programs such as swfmill, SWFTools, and MTASC provide tools to create SWF files, but do so by compiling text, actionscript or XML files into Flash animations. It is also possible to create SWF files programmatically using the Ming library, which has interfaces for C, PHP, C++, Perl, Python, and Ruby. haXe is an open source, high-level object-oriented programming language geared towards web-content creation that can compile Flash files.

Many shareware developers produced Flash creation tools and sold them for under US$50 between 2000 and 2002. In 2003 competition and the emergence of free Flash creation tools, most notably Impress, had driven many third-party Flash-creation tool-makers out of the market, allowing the remaining developers to raise their prices, although many of the products still cost less than US$100 and support ActionScript. As for open source tools, KToon can edit vectors and generate SWF, but its interface is very different from Macromedia's. Another, more recent example of a Flash creation tool is SWiSH Max made by an ex-employee of Macromedia. Toon Boom Technologies also sells traditional animation tool, based on Flash - Toon-Army. Anime Studio is a 2D animation software specialised for character animation which creates SWF files. Express Animator is similarly aimed specifically at animators.

Users that are not programmers or web designers will also find on line tools that allows to build a full Flash-based web site. One of the oldest services available (1998) is FlashToGo. Such companies provide a wide variety of pre-built models (templates) associated to a Content Management System that empowers users to easily build, edit and publish their web sites.

Adobe wrote a software package called Adobe LiveMotion, designed to create interactive animation content and export it to a variety of formats, including SWF. LiveMotion went through two major releases, but failed to gain any notable user base.

In February 2003, Macromedia purchased Presedia, which had developed a Flash authoring tool that automatically converted PowerPoint Files into Flash. Macromedia subsequently released the new product as Breeze, which included many new enhancements. Since that time, Macromedia has seen competing PowerPoint-to-Flash authoring tools from PointeCast (not to be confused with PointCast) and PresentationPro among others. In addition, (as of version 2) Apple's Keynote presentation software also allows users to create interactive presentations and export to SWF.

批评[ | ]

In April 2010, Apple CEO Steve Jobs criticized the Flash platform and stated that the company would not allow it to run on its iOS devices.[1] Developers of third-party web browsers began to blacklist the Flash plugin by default due to security issues.[2] In July 2017, Adobe announced that it would phase out support for Flash by the end of 2020.[3]

可用性[ | ]

Many usability concerns regarding Flash are due to the fact that Flash breaks with many of the conventions associated with normal HTML pages. Things like selecting text, scrollbars,[17] form control and right-clicking act differently than with a regular HTML webpage, and it is argued that this contributes to a usability issue. Usability expert Jakob Nielsen published an Alertbox in 2000 entitled, Flash: 99% Bad[18] which listed many of these issues. Much of this criticism is due to poor implementation. For example, bookmarking could be handled, but is often not implemented due to time, cost, or lack of knowledge.

Web pages which make heavy use of Flash can also cause difficulties for some users, such as those using old hardware or who cannot install or use Flash Player. As Flash elements often include a lot of graphics and sound, dial-up internet users are also affected by higher page load times, although there is a more general trend toward larger websites as high-speed internet becomes more common.

可访问性问题[ | ]

The US Justice Department has stated in regard to the Americans with Disabilites Act:

"Covered entities under the ADA are required to provide effective communication, regardless of whether they generally communicate through print media, audio media, or computerized media such as the Internet. Covered entities that use the Internet for communications regarding their programs, goods, or services must be prepared to offer those communications through accessible means as well."

Although long since fixed with accessibility functions since Flash Player 6, Internet users who are visually-impaired, and who may rely on a screen reader, braille display, or using larger text sizes and/or high-contrast color schemes may find sites that make extensive use of Flash difficult or impossible to use.[19]

使用 Flash 限制对内容的访问[ | ]

Many content producers use Flash as a way to limit user's access to the media displayed in their browsers, and/or gain clicks by forcing extra steps to display. For example, in Windows, Shockwave/Flash (.swf) files cannot be right-clicked and saved. Famously, YouTube furnishes all video in flash video format (.flv), requiring users to turn to third-party solutions to store the content locally. The usage is now spreading to photo sharing websites such as Webshots. A Flash overlay exists over the initial photo displayed, requiring a second click to retrieve the photo, slowing the experience considerably. However, if Flash is not installed, the image displays normally.

本地共享对象[ | ]

Main article: Local Shared Object Flash Players since version 6 can store and retrieve persistent data without offering any visible signs to the user, similarly to cookies. It is possible to clear the temporary files that Flash stores on a computer either through the Flash website, or manually. The default storage location for LSOs is operating-system dependent. For Windows XP, the location is within each user's Application Data directory, under Macromedia\Flash Player\#SharedObjects. For Windows Vista it is in each user's AppData directory under Roaming\Macromedia\Flash Player\#SharedObjects. For Mac OS X it is in each users Library directory under Preferences/Macromedia/Flash Player/#SharedObjects. On Linux it is in each users directory: ~/.macromedia/Flash_Player/#SharedObjects.

安全问题[ | ]

Specially crafted files have been shown to cause Flash applications to malfunction, by allowing the execution of malevolent code. Users who have not updated their Flash Player to the most recent version may be vulnerable to such an attack.

In addition to entries in the Open Source Vulnerability Database, security advisories published in August 2002[20], December 2002 [21] and November 2005 [22] highlight three examples of reports about various Flash Player versions that allowed remote code execution.

各种平台上的 Flash Player[ | ]

Adobe Flash Player 主要针对 Windows 32 位平台进行了优化。版本 9 的 32 位版本也可用于 Mac OS X、Linux 和 Solaris。到目前为止,Adobe 尚未在非 Microsoft 平台上优化其产品。这导致在 Macintosh 和 Linux 计算机上使用 Flash 9 之前的网络冲浪性能很差,因为许多网站使用 Flash 动画作为菜单和广告。适用于 Linux 的 Flash Player 7 在全屏模式下非常消耗 CPU,导致帧速率较低。

Adobe 已在 Mac 版 Flash Player 8 中重写了位图绘制例程,通过 Quartz 使用 OpenGL 平面来绘制表面。据报道,新的绘图代码实际上比它的 Windows 版本快[需要引用],其中 JPEG、TIFF 或其他位图图像被合成到动画中。

Flash Player 的 Linux 版本需要高级 Linux 声音架构 (ALSA) 才能输出声音。ALSA 是在 Linux 2.5 中引入的,可能很难与非常旧的声音硬件一起使用。传统 Open Sound System 的用户必须编译和安装 Adob​​e 提供的抽象层 flashsupport,通过 WINE 在 Windows 浏览器中运行 Windows Flash Player,或者切换到 ALSA,这可能涉及重新编译或升级内核和/或安装额外的司机。

在适用于 Linux 的 Flash Player 7 上,声音可能比图片滞后约一秒;这个问题在 Flash Player 9 中得到了解决。Flash Player 8 从未发布用于 Linux,Adobe 表示他们将跳过该版本,而是专注于准备 Flash Player 9。用于 Linux 的 Flash Player 9 于 2007 年 1 月发布。

在 Linux 上,当鼠标光标悬停在 Flash 动画上时,通常无法滚动网页(在某些发行版中,可以在鼠标单击 Flash 外的页面后使用箭头键)。长新闻网站可能很难滚动浏览,因为它们通常包含散布在各处的 Flash 动画,因此在滚动时必须将光标绕在 Flash 内容周围。

截至 2008 年 2 月,Adobe 尚未在任何操作系统上发布适用于 x86-64 架构的 Flash Player。[23] 迄今为止,还没有适用于非 x86 兼容处理器(例如 x86-64 native、PowerPC、ARM 等)的 Linux Flash Player。Adobe 员工曾表示,Flash 的实现是非常特定于 32 位的,移植到 64 位系统需要付出很多努力。 [24] Adobe 声称目前正在开发 64 位版本。 [25] Adobe 尚未发布任何适用于除 Mac OS X 之外的任何类 UNIX 操作系统的开发软件。

由于 Adobe 拒绝支持 PPC 架构,最新的 Flash 不仅在 Linux 上失败了,而且对基于 PPC 架构的 CELL 处理器的 Sony Playstation 3 也失败了。因此,PS3 网络浏览器使用了与大多数现代网站不兼容的过时版本的 Flash(从 Macromedia 获得许可)。

搜索引擎可索引性[ | ]

Flash 文件是二进制数据,因此不像其他文档格式那样容易索引。此外,由于其动态特性,搜索引擎通常无法链接到全 Flash 站点中的特定部分。

已经出现了一些方法来尝试解决这个问题。Adobe 有一个 Flash 搜索引擎 SDK,而 Flash CS3 创建了额外的元信息,这些信息可以被搜索引擎索引。[26] 一种流行的方法是创建一个带有可索引内容的基本 HTML 页面,并添加一个额外的 flash 层。这种“渐进增强”的方法近年来变得越来越流行。 [27]

数字版权管理[ | ]

Flash 的最新版本允许版权所有者在视频中嵌入广告,并控制这些视频的使用方式。 [7] 借助这款最新的软件,公司将能够快速删除他们认为侵犯版权的任何视频,并在视频开始之前强制播放广告。

维基媒体项目和 Flash[ | ]

维基媒体基金会与 Kaltura 合作,在 wiki 环境中试验用户创建的 Flash 动画。 [28]

相关文件格式和扩展名[ | ]

Ext. Explanation

.swf .swf files are completed, compiled and published files that cannot be edited with Adobe Flash. However, many '.swf decompilers' do exist. Attempting to import .swf files using Flash allows it to retrieve some assets from the .swf, but not all.

.fla .fla files contain source material for the Flash application. Flash authoring software can edit FLA files and compile them into .swf files.

.as .as files contain ActionScript source code in simple source files. FLA files can also contain Actionscript code directly, but separate external

.as files often emerge for structural reasons, or to expose the code to versioning applications. They sometimes use the extension .actionscript

.swd .swd files are temporary debugging files used during Flash development. Once finished developing a Flash project these files are not needed and can be removed.

.asc .asc files contain Server-Side ActionScript, which is used to develop efficient and flexible client-server Macromedia Flash Communication Server MX applications.

.flv .flv files are Flash video files, as created by Adobe Flash, ffmpeg, Sorenson Squeeze, or On2 Flix.

.f4v .f4v files are standard mp4 files that can be played back by Flash Player 9 Update 3 and above.[29]

.f4p .f4p files are mp4 files protected with digital rights management.[29]

.f4a .f4a files are mp4 files that contain only audio streams.[29]

.f4b .f4b files are mp4 audio book files.[29]

.swc .swc files are used for distributing components; they contain a compiled clip, the component's ActionScript class file, and other files that describe the component.

.jsfl .jsfl files are used to add functionality in the Flash Authoring environment; they contain Javascript code and access the Flash Javascript API.

.swt .swt files are 'templatized' forms of .swf files, used by Macromedia Generator

.flp .flp files are XML files used to reference all the document files contained in a Flash Project. Flash Projects allow the user to group multiple, related files together to assist in Flash project organization, compilation and build.

.spl .spl files are FutureSplash documents.

.aso .aso files are cache files used during Flash development, containing compiled ActionScript byte code. An ASO file is recreated when a change in its corresponding class files is detected. Occasionally the Flash IDE does not recognize that a recompile is necessary, and these cache files must be deleted manually. They are located in %USERPROFILE%\Local Settings\Application Data\Macromedia\Flash8\en\Configuration\Classes\aso on Win32 / Flash8.

.lmv These files are created by the freeware program called liveswif.They are used to save the animation in an editable file , but can also be converted into an .swf file to produce online content for the web. This file has nothing to do with adobe flash Fla file , with the only similarity being that they both hold editable data that can be converted into a swf file.

网页中的视频[ | ]

Flash 越来越多地被用作在网页上显示视频剪辑的一种方式,这是自 Flash Player 版本 6 以来提供的一项功能。这一成功的关键在于该播放器在多个浏览器和操作系统中的广泛分布,而不是任何卓越的视频质量或属性. 它适用于许多流行平台,包括 Windows、Mac OS X 和 Linux。Flash 被用作许多流行视频网站的基础,包括 YouTube 和 Google Video。然而,通过 Flash 嵌入多媒体的一个主要缺陷是,与专门构建的多媒体播放系统相比,播放硬件的性能损失相当大。许多在 Flash 中嵌入时会掉帧和跳过音频的文件在同一硬件上使用其他多媒体格式时不会出现任何问题。

Flash 视频(.flv 文件)是一种容器格式,这意味着它本身不是视频格式,但可以包含其他格式。Flash 中的视频采用 H.263 编码,从 Flash player 8 开始,它也可以采用 VP6 编码。音频为 MP3。由于 Flash Player 8 和 Flash Player 9 的大量采用率,VP6 的使用在许多公司中很常见。 [10]

2007 年 8 月 20日,Adobe 在其博客上宣布,随着 Flash Player 的 Update 3(目前处于测试阶段),Flash Video 也将支持 MPEG-4 国际标准。 [30] 具体来说,Flash Player 将支持以 H.264 (MPEG-4 Part 10) 压缩的视频、使用 AAC (MPEG-4 Part 3) 压缩的音频、MP4、M4V、M4A、3GP 和 MOV 多媒体容器格式 (MPEG- 4 第 14 部分),3GPP 定时文本规范(MPEG-4 第 17 部分),它是一种标准化的字幕格式和对“ilst”原子的部分解析支持,它是 iTunes 用于存储元数据的 ID3 等效原子。Adobe 还宣布,由于流式传输 H.264 时 FLV 结构的功能限制,他们将逐渐从专有的 FLV 格式转向标准 MP4 格式。

重新品牌化[ | ]

2016年2月,该创作应用程序更名为 Adobe Animate,以支持基于网页的标准,例如 HTML5.[4]

参考文献[ | ]


外部链接[ | ]

Template:Navbox Flash

补充[ | ]



Template:Navbox Flash